Build your own solar thermal panel

If you realy want to save some money, heating water by making your own solar panels, you must look on the nice explanations shown in this Sietch post.
They give step by step explanation on how to build thermal solar panel yourself.
The idea is to build a panel that can heat by the sun and then heat some water for your use. I believe that this idea can be further developed, and I’ll intend to bring some of my idea soon.


How to convert vegetable oil to biodiesel – do it yourself

For newbie, I’ll recommend starting with a fresh oil and small quantities. Later on, you can try doing it in large scale and with recycled oil.

What is the process of making biodiesel?
Vegetable or animal oils are triglycerides, Which means that they contain glycerine and fatty acids. This process turns the oils and fats into fatty acids, separating out the glycerine. After the separation, the glycerine sinks to the bottom and the biodiesel floats on top and can be siphoned off.
This process is called transesterification, which technically, substitutes alcohol for the glycerine in a chemical reaction, using lye as a catalyst. See

What Chemicals do you need?
For beginners, the alcohol that is best suite for the process is methanol. Although most methanol comes from fossil fuels (while it can also be made from biomass, such as wood), but using other alcohols like ethanol is more difficult and require distillation.

Methanol is also called: “methyl alcohol”, “wood alcohol”, “wood naphtha”, “wood spirits”, “methyl hydrate” , "stove fuel", “carbinol”, “colonial spirits”, “Columbian spirits”, “Manhattan spirits”, “methylol”, “methyl hydroxide”, “hydroxymethane”, “monohydroxymethane”, “pyroxylic spirit”, or MeOH (CH3OH or CH4O) -- all the same thing.

You can usually get methanol from bulk liquid fuels distributors, in supermarkets and chain stores as "stove fuel" for barbecues and fondues, and more.

You will also need a lye catalyst, that can be either potassium hydroxide (KOH) or sodium hydroxide (caustic soda, NaOH). NaOH is often easier to get and it's cheaper to use. KOH is easier to use, and it does a better job.

Make the first trial batch:
Here is what you need for start:

One liter of new vegetable oil.
lye catalyst – see above – KOH or NaOH
200 ml of methanol, 99+% pure
measuring beakers for methanol and oil
scales accurate to 0.1 grams, or preferably less -- 0.01 grams if possible.
½ liter translucent white #2 plastic container with screw-on cap and bung
2 funnels to fit the container
2-liter bottle for settling
two 2-liter bottles for washing
duct tape

Making Lye for home-made biodiesel productionyou have to work rapidly when measuring out the lye because it very rapidly absorbs water from the atmosphere and water interferes with the biodiesel reaction.

Measure the lye into a handy-sized frivolous plastic bag on the scales (or even do the whole thing entirely inside a big plastic container), then close the lid of the container firmly and then close the plastic bag, winding it up so there's not much air in it, so no more air can get in. Have exactly the same kind of bag on the other side of the scale to balance the weight, or adjust the scale for the weight of the bag.

How much to use?
NaOH must be at least 97% pure, so use exactly 3.5 grams.
If you're using KOH it depends on the strength.

If it's 99% pure (rare) use 4.9 grams (4.90875). If it's 92% pure (more common) use 5.3 grams (5.33), with 90% pure use 5.5 grams (5.454), with 85% pure use 5.8 grams (5.775).
Notice that any strength of KOH from 85% or stronger will work.

How to Mix the methoxide:

Measure 200 ml of methanol and pour it into the half-liter container trough a funnel. Methanol can also absorbs water from the atmosphere so make sure you do it quickly and close the lid of the methanol container tightly.
Don't be frightened of methanol, if you're working at ordinary room temperature and you can keep it at arm's length you won't be exposed to dangerous fumes. See More about methanol.

Carefully add the lye to the container trough the second funnel. close the bung and the screw on the cap tightly.

Shake the container a few times - spin it round and do not shake it up and down. The mixture gets hot from the reaction. If you swirl it thoroughly for a minute or so, the lye will completely dissolve in the methanol, forming a methoxide. As soon as the liquid is clear with no floating particles you can start the process.

The more you swirl the container the faster the lye will dissolve. With NaOH it can take from overnight to a few hours to as little as half-an-hour with lots of swirling - don't be impatient!, wait for all the lye to dissolve. Mixing KOH is much faster, it dissolves in the methanol more easily than NaOH and can be ready for use in 10 minutes.

The reaction process – using a blender:

Use a spare blender you don't need or get a cheap second-hand one -- cheap because it might not last very long, but it will get you going until you build something better.
Make sure that the blender seals are in good order. Check that all parts of the blender are clean and dry and that the blender components are firmly fitted.

- heat the oil to 55 deg C (130 deg F) and then pour it into the blender.

-While the blender is still turned off, gently pour the prepared methoxide from the HDPE container into the oil.

Secure the blender lid tightly and turn on. Use lower speed.
Mix for about 20-30 minutes.

When the process is completed, decant the mix from the blender or the mini-processor into the 2-liter bottle for settling and screw on the lid tightly.

Allow the mixture to settle for 12-24 hours.

Dark-coloured glycerol by-product will precipitate in a distinct layer at the bottom of the bottle, and a clear line of separation from the pale liquid above will be visible, that is the biodiesel. The biodiesel can vary in color depending on the oil used. Usually it's pale and yellowish. The biodiesel could be clear or still cloudy, which is not a problem. It will clear eventually but there is no need to wait.

After clearing, carefully pour the top layer of biodiesel into a clean jar or bottle, taking care not to get any of the glycerine layer mixed up with the biodiesel. If you do, re-settle and try again.

For washing use the two 2-liter bottles in series, with 1/2 a liter of tap water added for each of the three or four washes required. Pierce a small 2 mm opening in the underneath corner of each of the two bottles and cover the hole securely with duct tape.
If you have a small paint stirrer and a variable-speed drill, cut the lids off the bottles as above for the stirrer. Stir until oil and water appear homogenous. Let it settle for 2 hours or more.
If you do not have a stirrer, do not cut the lids off the wash bottles.
Mix the biodiesel and the water as above. Screw the cap on very tightly. Turn the bottle on its side and roll it about manually until oil and water are well mixed and homogenous. Settle, let it drain.


When the solution become clear (translucent) it is dry and ready to use. It might clear quickly, or it can even take a few days. If you're in a hurry, heat it gently to 48 deg C (120 deg F) and allow to cool.

Congratulations! You have just produced high quality biodiesel fuel.


Three Global Warming Prevention Tips

Follow these 3 tips to prevent or reduce some of your most significant personal contributions to global warming.

If you wish to prevent further global warming, you must be willing to set aside the cultural norms by which you currently live, and accept that you and everyone you know must sooner or later learn to live on a fraction of the energy you currently consume. By all counts, there is no other way.

The earth is large but finite. The result of the enormous human population and the environmental impact of our current way of life is that we are rapidly extinguishing the Earth's biodiversity and degrading most ecosystems, creating a bleak future for ourselves.

There are numerous ways in which our learning to live with less will take place; there is no single, magic button solution that will solve the problem of global warming. The following tips discuss some of most potent possibilities, in that implementing them will cut out or reduce some of your most significant personal contributions to global warming:

Global Warming Prevention Tip #1: Sell your car

Yup, the past century of personal motorized travel has been a very convenient, luxurious, and enjoyable demonstration of grossly unsustainable human activity. According to the Energy Information Administration (, the transportation sector overtook industry as the biggest US producer of carbon emissions in 1999, and motor fuel accounts for 60% of total US production of carbon emissions over the past 20 years. You probably contribute to these emissions in a variety of ways, but you have the greatest ability to reduce the role you play in this by changing how you relate to your car.

One of the best alternatives to owning your own car is to join a car co-op. In fact, car co-ops now operate in a growing number of cities around the world. Go here to find the closest car sharing option to you:

No care sharing going on in your area? You can start your own--check out for a primer.

If you cannot yet relinquish your car, make mileage efficiency the top deciding factor in choosing a vehicle, and start working now on any changes you need to make in your life to let you get rid of your car as soon as possible.

Public transportation is the only reasonable, long-term solution to the majority of our transport needs. It is slowly improving as US cities confront the impacts of an infrastructure built around cars and trucks. It will only get better when you demand adequate services; vote with your feet (and bring all your friends!) to demonstrate the need.

Global Warming Prevention #2: Buy local, eat local

You may have noticed the proliferation of farmer's markets around the country over the past decade or so. This is not just a quaint fad, but rather a vital, direct-action opportunity to reduce your global warming impact and increase local food security. When you purchase from your local area, you not only reduce the amount of carbon emissions required to support your lifestyle, you also help to keep money in your community.

The long-distance transport of food and other goods comes with a heavy ecological cost;the average meal on your plate in the US has traveled 2000 miles to get to you, which helps to explain why every calorie of food you consume costs an average of ten calories of energy to produce it. That imbalance fuels the global warming fire by adding far more carbon to the atmosphere than is necissary to meet your dietary needs.

One great resource to help you buy and eat more locally is:

A partial change is better than no change; you probably can't eliminate processed and imported goods from your life tomorrow, but the more needs you can meet locally, the more you reduce your carbon footprint and contribute to the prevention of further global warming.

Global Warming Prevention Tip #3: Make your local government part of the solution

No politician interested in reelection is going to sponsor the kind of legislation required to alleviate our massive responsibility for global warming without an organized citizenry pushing for better climate legislation. Only when citizen activism shifts this topic into the mainstream will the government move to act on it substantively. Influcing the federal government on this issue may seem daunting, but pushing your local government to take action on global warming may bear fruit quickly (for help, check out

Your personal action matters. Sell your car, buy your food from local sources, and pressure your governments to act. Most important of all, be vocal with friends, family, and strangers alike about why you're making these changes, and what is at stake.

Many people are making changes to combat climate change, but we need you to join us right away. Start here and now. It can be done.

This article may be reprinted freely as long as this resource box is included. Nathan Brown is an activist creating a revolutionary movement by showing people
how to prevent global warming. Related global warming article:Reduce Your Carbon Footprint and Save Money


Causes of Global Warming

As we go about our daily lives we seldom think how the way that we live affects the environment around us. While we may think for a few minutes that we need to be more environmentally conscious there are very few of us who actually take the time which is needed. The different reports about global warming need our consideration as some of the causes of global warming are caused by us.

You may ask how this is possible. The answers are all staring us in the face if we just choose to look at them. The first place to look for some of the causes of global warming is in our cities. Whenever you drive on the roads your car is sending out emissions of carbon monoxide. You just have to multiple this effect with that of the numerous other vehicles to understand that driving a fuel engine vehicle does contribute to global warming.Another way that we contribute towards the causes of global warming is by deforestation.

When we were younger we were taught that the trees in the forests, jungles and rainforests were the lungs of the world. By cutting down large amounts of trees the curative abilities of these areas are decreased.This effect happens because trees need carbon dioxide to live. When large tracts of trees are cut down in one place the balance is lost. The remaining trees can't absorb all of the carbon which is floating in the atmosphere. Due to this fact the carbon rises in volume in the atmosphere. This is also why deforestation can be seen as one of the causes of global warming.Besides these factors chemicals like methane and nitrous oxide are also causes of global warming. These chemicals while in small amounts are not enough to cause damage to the atmosphere and environment.

They can be considered as causes of global warming when they are used for various man needed schemes. These schemes include the rearing of domestic animals such as cows in a congregated mass.

The growth of rice in flooded paddy fields is also one such cause. The other chemical reasons for global warming can be seen in the artificial fertilizers that we use.When all of these actions are taken separately you think there must be a mistake in thinking that these are some of the causes of global warming. There is however lots of evidence which supports this case. In order to stop the disastrous effects of global warming you should look at the different global warming causes and see what steps you can take to prevent this fact.

The more people who realize these facts, the sooner we can halt the spread of global warming. We should not wait too long as nature will not wait for us to get our acts straightened out. Remember that the causes of global warming are warnings to us to change our ways of living.

Global Warming  learn how to prevent it right now!


Solar Cell Roofing - Energy Producing Shingles That Look Like A Normal Roof

Solar cell roofing made from solar shingles or solar panels is being increasingly incorporated into the construction of new and existing residential and commercial buildings. Some systems can be hooked in with your conventional electric supply, and can literally make your meter spin backwards so you get a check in the mail instead of a bill.

Solar cell roofing made from solar shingles or solar panels is being increasingly incorporated into the construction of new residential and commercial buildings. In many areas, people are choosing to replace their conventional roof with a solar roof when it is time for maintenance. And most of these people would tell you that the long-term value, or short-term increase is resale interest, made it worthwhile.

A solar cell roof is called "buiulding integrated", also known by the more complete name "building integrated photovoltaic" (BIPV). BIPV suggests that you would have needed that part of the structure built anyway, and you've chosen to use material that will also serve the purpose of generating power through solar energy. The first advantage of solar cell shingles or panels on the roof is obvious: some of the initial cost is paid by lowering the overall material and labor costs involved in the construction. The second advantage is that the BIPV does not stand out - it is a normal and expected part of the design and structure of the building. These two advantages often make bipv solar roofing the clear choice over rooftop wind turbines, raised solar panels, and backyard windmills which both stand out and cost a lot more to build and install.

In some parts of the world, often due to government subsidies, many new houses are built with solar roofs. Until recently, this was not the case in the U.S., UK, and much of Europe because the cost remained prohibitive. However, with the invention of what is called "thin film solar technology", solar roofing tiles, panels and shingles have become easier to fabricate and work with and are much more aesthetically pleasing. This technology is best for pitched roofs where shingles or small tiles are the norm. Large flat roofs, such as the tops of many commercial buildings, can have one giant layer of solar film, or large integrated panels.

Solar cell roofs can be hooked up in two ways - on and off the grid. Off the grid solar power means that you will use the energy you gain from the solar panels and either not be connected at all to the electric company or connected in a way that is completely parallel and unrelated. Off grid appliactions might be appropriate for houses that are far from electric power lines but get enough sunlight to be completely solar, houses with combination systems with other renewable energy systems, or houses in places that get little sun so it would be unlikely that the solar power generated would ever be more than the house requires. On grid systems are hooked in with your conventional electric supply, and when the solar power system generates more electricity than you need, it actually sells it back to the power company. Your meter literally spins backwards and you can get a zero bill or even a check in the mail instead of a bill.

There is some debate among real estate developers, but the general rule is that any renewable energy source for the home pays off if it returns your original installation investment in ten years or less through energy savings. The invention and perfection of integrated thin film solar roofs has led to us rapidly approaching that return, and possibly even outdistancing it depending on where you live.

There are four things to consider when looking into a solar cell roof:1. How much sun does your area get each year, independent of the outside temperature?2. Where does your roof face - ideally it would face east/west of it is a slanted roof?3. What is the cost now, and projected cost of electricity where you are?4. What is the general attitude of home buyers in your area to renewables (especially if you might sell your home within 10 years)?

If you do choose solar cell roofing for your home or buisiness you will likely be pleasantly surprised at the effeiciency, cost, and savings associated with BIPV.

For more information about solar cell roofing, please see For specific inforamtion about solar cell shingles see, and for information about thin film technology, please see


Solar Thermal Energy Plant

Solar energy can be produced in a number of ways. There is the familiar solar panel - they are becoming increasingly common as they become more and more affordable. Solar panels produce solar energy through the process called photovoltaics: the rays of the Sun hit the silicon crystals in the panel thus inducing a flow of electrons. Another way to extract energy form sunlight is the solar thermal process.

Solar thermal energy is gathered by the use of parabolic mirrors. The mirrors are positioned to face the Sun, and a clear tube is placed at the focal point where a liquid flowing through the tube is heated. Next, the pipes are run through a boiler where the the steam generated spins the generators creating electricity. This step is not unlike what one might see in a traditional coal-fired plant. All in all, it is a fairly simple and low-tech process as far as the technical requirements for designing and building such a plant is concerned.

There aren't too many of these plants around the world. One was built at the end of the 70's in response of the oil shortage and it is located in the California desert only hours from Nevada Solar One.

This solar energy plant is located 20+ miles outside of Las Vegas in the Eldorado Valley south of Boulder City, NV. If you are driving from Vegas, take Hwy 95 south, drive through Boulder City following the signs and just a stone throw outside of town take the exit to "Searchlight." Within a mile or two you should see the 350 acre solar energy plant on the right-hand side.

As of writing this article (June of 2007), it is not operational yet. It appears that there is still quite a bit of construction is to be done. When complete, it will generate enough power through solar energy to satisfy the needs of 60 thousand of homes. The drawback is that power generated this way is still about three times more expensive than if a coal-fired plant was used.

A major advantage of generating solar energy this way as opposed to the use of solar panels is that it is quite low-tech compared to photovoltaics. The silicon crystals needed to generate a flow of electricity when it is hit by sunlight are formed by baking the compound in an oven then allowed to slowly cool to form the crystals. It requires specialty equipment, which is quite expensive. Even with larger production volumes, solar energy through photovoltaics is quite a bit more expensive than conventional power. Solar thermal power faces the same problem. However the technology requirements are low, economics of scale should more easily close the gap.

Watch a video of Nevada Solar One here:
Solar Energy


Shining Some Light on Solar Energy

Without a doubt, solar energy is the way of the future. Solar energy production is an extremely simple process to understand. A solar, or photovoltaic, cell collects energy from the Sun. A solar cell is a semiconductor device that is constructed using photovoltaic materials. It contains no liquids or chemicals, and no moving parts. Solar cells convert sunlight into electricity.

A solar panel generally consists of a series of individual cells, which are supported by a module that allows the cells to work in unison. The energy that is captured by the panel is stored in a battery. Solar panels generate direct current (DC) energy. Many solar energy systems have inverters in them which allow direct current (DC) electricity to be converted to alternating current (AC). Most consumer products such as appliances and electronics operate on AC current.

Unless you have a vast expanse of land to house an array of solar panels, it is unlikely that you will be able to power your entire home with solar energy. However, it is possible to power a single room in your house with a small array of panels fixed to the roof of your house. Multiply the wattage of each individual electrical device by the number of hours you expect to use them each day. That combined number will be your benchmark, or the bare minimum your system must be able to generate.

There are a number of options available to consumers that are considering converting to solar energy. A basic system that can be used to power a computer and a few other small items can be purchased for approximately $1000.00. Naturally, the price will increase with the production capacity of your system. In most regions, the price of an installed system will cost somewhere in the area of $10.00-$12.00 per watt.

Solar energy is one of a few truly renewable resources that can be used in energy and power generation. Every hour of every day, the Sun blankets our planet with enough energy to sustain our global energy needs for a year. As the technology behind photovoltaic energy advances, consumers will be unable to resist the urge to convert.

A lot of resources are being put into the development of solar energy technology. Most of the major oil and energy companies have entire divisions committed to solar energy. Researchers and engineers are spending countless hours trying to develop the technology today that will vastly improve conditions in the world tomorrow. It is no secret that we cannot continue down the path we are on. Fossil fuels are no longer a feasible option for energy production. The future is solar. The future is now.

About the Author: Jim Fritz has been a devout environmentalist for most of his adult life. He has been researching the benefits of solar energy for many years, and he is a contributing writer to – a brilliant online resource for information about Solar Energy, Solar Panels, Solar Consumer Goods and more


Grameen Shakti and the Solar Revolution

Grameen Shakti is a renewable energy resources company based out of Bangladesh. They are a part of the Grameen family of companies, which has been working for decades to alleviate the burdens of poverty in developing countries. The Grameen Bank, one of their founding companies, has become world-renowned for their charitable work and for helping to establish groundbreaking programs focused on the needs of people.

In recent years, the Grameen Bank has financed and supported a number of projects aimed at removing social and financial barriers and creating opportunities for those less fortunate. Grameen Telecom is one such example. The central aim of this company is to provide collateral-free loans to rural villagers for use in establishing local communications networks. This model has become known as the Village Phone.

They have now committed significant resources to sustainable energy development. The cornerstone of this effort is the Photovoltaic Program. In Bangladesh, only 30% of the population is receiving energy from the electrical power grid. In this developing nation, the infrastructure to provide energy to every household simply doesn't exist. In an effort to address this problem, Grameen Shakti has financed the installation of thousands of solar energy systems in rural communities.

This has created immense opportunities for people in rural villages. Children now have the ability to pursue their studies long after the sun has gone down. Businesses now have the ability to operate beyond their traditional work hours, thus increasing productivity and sales. A world of opportunity has opened up for an entire generation of rural villagers. As a consequence, they are no longer rural villagers. They are now members of our global village.

One of the most amazing consequences of this program has been the level of technological engagement that has occurred among the youth in Bangladesh. For young people in rural communities, the future is bright. Due to the advancement in technological knowledge and understanding, the demand for skilled workers has increased at a phenomenal pace. To address this concern, Grameen Shakti has also established training programs that educate young people in the principles of electronics and engineering.

It is both exciting and encouraging to witness the immediate and tangible effects of an enlightened business model that measures its true profitability by its social impact. It is an idea that is completely foreign to the western capitalist mindset, and one that serves as a shining example of the power of an idea. Western corporations take heed; there are lessons to be learned in rural Bangladesh.

About the Author: Jim Fritz is a committed environmentalist, and a life long member of various environmental organizations. He is also a member of the editorial team at – an enlightened source of information about the latest developments in renewable energy, environmental education, solar consumer goods and more.


Ford Introduces Roush F-150 Propane-Powered vehicle

Roush is the name of the first dedicated propane-powered F-150 pickup truck. With complete durable Ford truck parts and also with a variety of Ford truck accessories, Roush has an advanced liquid propane injection (LPI(TM)) system. The Roush F-150 LPI(TM) is designed and manufactured to operate solely on propane while providing the same horsepower, torque and drivability of an F-150 equipped with a gasoline-powered 5.4-liter, 3-valve Triton(TM) V-8 engine.Roush will be available in the market immediately. The truck can be ordered, delivered or serviced through a nationwide network of selected Ford dealers. Offered as a 2007 model year vehicle, it is the only propane-powered light-duty truck available from an original equipment manufacturer this year.

The Roush F-150 is available in Regular Cab, Super Cab and Super Crew cab styles with XL or XLT trim and the full range of bed lengths. The LPI(TM) option includes dedicated propane fuel lines, fuel rail assembly and fuel tank. Additionally, another Ford truck part, the OEM computer has been re-calibrated to provide optimum performance and fuel economy.

The base LPI(TM) option is $6,500 and has a unique 20 gallon toroidal fuel tank, mounted in place of the underbody spare tire. Also available as an additional option for customers in need of increased range is a 50 gallon, in-bed fuel tank.Ford introduced its new truck at the NPGA Southeastern Convention and International Expo in Atlanta, Georgia last April 14 to 17.

It was the largest propane industry conference in the United States.Tom Arnold, Director of Alternative Fuel Products for Roush said aside from the vehicle’s superb engineering, it is also an alternative fuel vehicle that has an established refueling infrastructure to support it.

He further said this vehicle will have a positive impact on reducing emissions and the dependency on foreign oil.Providing data to the engine’s computer that eventually allows more precise fuel control at the intake port are two billet aluminum propane injection fuel rails, an insulated cross-over, a combined pressure/temperature sensor, and a service port. Roush F-150 uses fuel injection and fuel storage systems supplied by Clean FUEL USA and ICOM, Italy. LPI(TM) is a registered trademark of Clean FUEL USA.The standard toroidal fuel tank include a special high flow fuel pump, dual filters, and the required control valves needed to run the engine. Optional is the in-bed fuel tank. The fuel sender and electronic auto stop fill system are also found in the tank. Through the fuel filler door, the fuel is poured. An automatic stop fill device prevents the overfilling of fuel.

This will allow the vehicle to be filled without using the "bleeder" system that vents propane vapors during filling. Another proof that the vehicle’s fuel tank will function well is that prior to entering the tank, the fuel is also filtered.A “one-touch” system controls the vehicle start. The engine controls take over from the driver to provide the fastest possible start with the lowest possible emissions. The OEM engine control is used with unique calibration values to suit the changes in properties from gasoline to propane.With no special oils or change intervals required, the maintenance schedule for the Roush F-150 LPI(TM) is similar to that of a gasoline engine schedule.In February 2006, the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC) awarded the contract to Roush.

The vehicle was designed, manufactured and brought in to market in only 14 months. The Managing Director of Engine Fuel Programs for PERC by the name of Brian Feehan said Roush has an incomparable reputation for technical expertise, quality and value. He explained that it is because of this expertise and experience that they chose Roush to develop this vehicle.

About the Author: Gertrude Sayzer finished her degree in Marketing at Western New England College. She is passionate about writing and loves to travel as well. At present, this 32 year-old mother of three works full-time at an Ad agency in Boston.


Alternative Fuels Snatch Auto Industry’s Limelight

With the alarming environmental concerns and the aim of preserving a greener tomorrow, automakers are triggered to build more environment-friendly automobiles. In fact, part of the fast-rising vehicles today is powered by alternative fuels. In a short span of time, these vehicles have swiftly stolen the limelight of the industry.

Alternative fuel, also known as non-conventional fuels, is any material or substance that can be used as a fuel, other than fossil fuels, or conventional fuels of petroleum, coal, propane, and natural gas. The term usually refers to a source of which energy is renewable. Its main function is to store energy in a form that is stable and can be easily transported from the place of production to the end user. Alternative fuels include biodiesel, butanol, ethanol, chemically stored electricity like batteries and fuel cells, hydrogen, methane, natural gas, biomass, wood, wood gas, vegetable oil, and peanut oil.One of the vehicles using such alternative fuels is the Volvo Multi-Fuel.

Said vehicle is optimized to run on five different fuels so there is a need to upgrade on Volvo performance parts. The Volvo Multi-Fuel, based on the Volvo V70, is powered by a 2.0-liter five-cylinder turbocharged engine that will run on hythane (10 per cent hydrogen and 90 per cent methane), biomethane, natural gas (CNG), bioethanol E85 (85 per cent bioethanol and 15 per cent gasoline) and gasoline. Aside from the fact that it runs on 5 different engines, another notable facet of the Volvo Multi-Fuel is its relatively consistent performance not considering the fuel used.

Volvo claims that the turbocharged engine of the vehicle is producing about 200 horsepower. It is sufficient to power up the wagon. The vehicle runs exceptionally clean. In fact, when pure renewable fuels such as hyrdrogen, biomethane or bioethanol are used, very little fossil carbon dioxide is emitted.

Hythane, E85 bioethanol and CNG biomethane are extra-clean fuels. This is main reason why the vehicle has surpassed all existing emissions regulations imposed in any market at the present time. Furthermore, it would also qualify for the upcoming EuroV emissions regulations. The mentioned fuels also have the advantage of being carbon neutral. It means that the amount of carbon emitted when the fuel is burned is equivalent to the amount acquired by the crops used to make the fuel.

When changing between fuels, the driver only has to choose between gaseous or liquid fuel and the engine management system will adjust to optimize performance for the fuel. The Multi-Fuel has separate fuel tanks for gaseous fuels that include hythane, biomethane and CNG; and liquid fuel like E85 and gasoline. "The whole car is optimized for high performance, driving on any of the five different fuels," said Mats Moren, project leader engine at Volvo Car Corporation. "It is a step towards a hydrogen-powered society. Perhaps we can develop the system even further, to run on a higher blend in the future."

Volvo is known for its commitment to lead automotive milestones. As a fact, it has been associated with remarkable safety and ninety-degree bodywork. At this point in time, the automaker has already established a name that embodies style, quality, cutting-edge design – and superb green technology. Aside from Volvo, renowned automakers like Daimler Chrysler are producing entry vehicles that use alternative fuels. The latest entry so far is the E320 CDI BlUETEC that runs on a biomass-to-liquid (BtL) fuel known as SunDiesel. Said fuel can be used as the lone fuel or as an additive.

"We believe BtL fuels can make an important contribution to our energy supply,” explained Prof. Dr. Herbert Kohler, vice president of the Research Body and Powertrain and also chief environmental officer of DaimlerChrysler AG. "They can reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, and with their good carbon dioxide audit they can also help make mobility more environmentally compatible." The Mercedes-Benz E200 NGT and the smart four two cng were also entered, both running on CNG. The E 200 NGT reduces CO2 emissions by over 20 per cent and with a power output of 163 horsepower from the 1.8-liter engine. It is the most powerful CNG passenger car currently in production.

The driver can decide whether to use CNG or gasoline using buttons on the steering wheel, and an electronic control unit ensures a smooth transition from one power source to the other. Fuel consumption is 39 mpg with CNG and 26 mpg with premium unleaded. Ford’s green vehicles include Focus C-MAX H2 ICE is powered by a prototype hydrogen internal combustion engine. The engine is a 2.3-liter four-cylinder gasoline engine that produces 110 horsepower. According to Ford the Focus C-MAX H2 ICE has a driving range of about 120 miles with the fuel capacity of 2.75 kg of hydrogen. General Motors newest entry is Saab 9-5 BioPower, which runs on either bioethanol or gasoline. The BioPower is not only environment-friendly; it also but delivers more power and performance than the gasoline-only version.

The vehicle can switch between bioethanol and gasoline without any adjustment by the driver. The Q7 TDI, powered by 3.0-liter direct-injection with impressive fuel economy of 22 mpg, is Audi’s latest green SUV pride. For the recently held Challenge Bibendum, the Q7 TDI was fueled with Synfuel produced by Shell. It is manufactured from natural gas, biomass or coal to decrease the environmental impact by reducing exhaust emissions.

About the Author: Glady Reign is a 32 year old is a consultant for an automotive firm based in Detroit, Mi. she is a native of the motor city and grew up around cars hence her expertise in the automotive field.


How Alternative Fuels Can Help You Save At The Pump

There are many alternative fuels available on the market today. President Bush seems to be on a mission stating that Americans are "addicted" to oil.

Alternative fuel is quickly replacing gasoline, resulting in fewer pollution and cost efficiency. The U.S. Department of Energy is guiding the efforts due to a need to limit air pollution levels to protect human health and the environment. The following are a list of alternative fuels that are becoming more and more mainstream. Eventually, these fuels will replace our dependency on gasoline.

Ethanol is a fuel made from crop grain. It is a renewable fuel. Ethanol is used in 10 percent blends with gasoline to create gasohol. Ethanol is not considered an alternative fuel unless it is mixed at 85 percent with gasoline to create E-85. You will start to see E-85 being provided at all major gas stations in the very near future.

Another alternative fuel that is replacing gasoline is Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG). LPG consists mainly of propane, propylene, butane and butylenes in various mixtures. LPG is a byproduct of natural gas processing and petroleum refining. LPG can also be produced domestically; therefore, lessening our reliance on foreign companies to provide our fuel.

Methanol is an alcohol free fuel. A process using natural gas as a feedstock produces methanol. The alternative Methanol fuel is being used as M-85.

Biofuels are also beginning to enter the mainstream. Biofuels are chemicals made from cellulosic biomass such as herbaceous and woody pulp from agricultural and forestry residues. A majority of biofuels consists of municipal waste and industrial waste. Biofuels are also domestically grown, reducing our reliance on other countries to supply our fuels.

Finally, good old electricity is being tapped into to help power vehicles, known as hybrids. Batteries provide the electricity used to power these vehicles. The batteries are charged from electricity that is produced at a power plant. Power plants utilize fossil fuels to produce energy. There are no emissions from a hybrid, which is good for the environment.

We have listed several alternative fuels that are going to continue to replace gasoline on a massive level. These fuels are better for our health and for the health of the environment. They also will cut our reliance on foreign countries to provide us with our fuel. The end result will be lower costs at the pump.

Autor: teahupoo


Energy Saving Devices

The world today is experiencing energy revolution. Environmental issues are catching up and with the increased emphasis placed on preserving the environment we all need to play our roles in saving energy. By saving energy, we can definitely take a positive step in fighting the climate change and in preserving non-renewable sources of energy. Let us look at some devices and measures that can help us conserve energy and replace non renewable sources with renewable sources of energy.

Many companies are now providing customer-focused energy equipments like Energy savers, Utility Instruments, Level Controllers, Control Panels and Process Control Equipments etc. Various products that are now placed in the shelves of the store and that help in energy revolution and conservation are:

• Integrated Intelligent Home System:
This provides you with home security, control, automation and communication related features. One can control and monitor their home and office security along with controlling the home appliances and lighting from any telephone, keypad, handheld remote control system, computer or the internet. The products have outstanding remote communication features which can allow you to communicate with visitors when they are still at office doors, you can send them your messages and can also hear their messages. In case there is alarm notification, you can listen to different sounds and the activity present in the surroundings.

• Light and Air -conditioner Energy Saver:
These devices are normally very easy to install and help to save energy directly. They can adjust the temperature by automatically realizing the self-motion adjustment. They do not connect to any circuitry in the AC. They have stable capacities and do not get affected by fluctuations in external temperature. Trouble from these energy saver devices do not harm or affect the functioning of your equipment in any way. The devices are shock proof and help you reduce your power requirement by minimum 20%.

• Green Energy Products
Today, you would find an array of Green products in the market. Green products and appliances include energy saving appliances and devices for your office and home, windows/doors utilizing solar energy and household products built out of eco-friendly materials. Fluorescent light bulbs are another light saving devices utilizing minimum amount of electricity per watt. All these energy saver products positively influence the environment and reduce the energy and electricity costs. They also reduce the emission of pollutants in the long-term.

Other products like energy saving remote control made out of plastic are also available for saving energy in your day to day use.

Benefits of using Energy saving & Intelligent Products:

• Uses 75% to 80% less electricity.
• Cost less and work too well
• Reduce dependence on coal and petroleum
• Help to address concerns of global warming
• Reduce the gasoline and electricity bills
• Reduce the green house gas emission levels

Overall, reduced energy usage means that the need to go for building new transmission lines, infrastructure and other related devices can be delayed and prolonged. Hence, one can defer the environmental concerns and issues, if not have complete removal. All the energy saving programs and devices will reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions made by coal utilizing power plants. Emissions up to an average of around 2.1 billion pounds per year can be saved for around 20 years

So, when we are aware of these things, why not head on the way to conserving energy!

About Author

Carol Oon writes articles on ai home automation. Other information written by Carol Oon related to ai automation control, ai integrated intelligent control and ai intelligent control can be found at


Everything You Need To Know About Green Energy

Green energy refers to the use of power that is not only more efficient than fossil fuel but that is friendly to the environment as well. Green energy is generally defined as energy sources that dont pollute and are renewable. There are several categories of green energy (GE). They are anaerobic digestion, wind power, geothermal power, hydropower on a small scale, biomass power, solar power and wave power. Waste incineration can even be a source of green energy. Nuclear power plants claim that they produce green energy as well, though this source is fraught with controversy, as we all know.

While nuclear energy may be sustainable, may be considered renewable and does not pollute the atmosphere while it is producing energy, its waste does pollute the biosphere as it is released.The transport, mining and phases before and after production of nuclear energy does produce and release carbon dioxide and similar destructive greenhouse gases. When we read of green energy, therefore, we rarely see nuclear power included. Those who support nuclear energy say that nuclear waste is not, in fact, released into our earths biosphere during its normal production cycle. They stress as well that the carbon dioxide that nuclear energy production releases is comparable, in terms of each kilowatt hour of electricity, to such sources of GE as wind power.As an example of the GE production the average wind turbine, such as the one in Reading England, can produce enough energy daily to be the only energy source for 1000 households. Many countries now offer household and commercial consumers to opt for total use of green energy. They do this one of two ways. Consumers can buy their electricity from a company that only uses renewable green energy technology, or they can buy from their general supplies such as the local utility company who then buys from GE resources only as much of a supply as consumers pay for.The latter is generally a more cost - efficient way of supplying a home or office with GE, as the supplier can reap the economic benefits of a mass purchase. Green energy generally costs more per kilowatt hour than standard fossil fuel energy. Consumers can also purchase green energy certificates, which are alternately referred to as green tags or green certificates. These are available in both Europe and the United States, and are the most convenient method for the average consumer to support green energy. More than 35 million European households and one million American households now buy these GE certificates. While GE is a great step in the direction of keeping our environment healthy and our air as pollutant free as possible, it must be noted that no matter what the energy, it will negatively impact the environment to some extent.Every energy source, green or otherwise, requires energy. The production of this energy will create pollution during its manufacture. Green energys impact is minimal, however.

James Copper owns who offer energy training and assessment.


Alternative Energy From The Ocean

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) was conceived of by the French engineer Jacques D'Arsonval in 1881. However, at the time of this writing the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii is home to the only operating experimental OTEC plant on the face of the earth. OTEC is a potential alternative energy source that needs to be funded and explored much more than it presently is.

The great hurdle to get over with OTEC implementation on a wide and practically useful level is cost. It is difficult to get the costs down to a reasonable level because of the processes presently utilized to drive OTEC. Ocean thermal energy would be very clean burning and not add pollutants into the air. However, as it presently would need to be set up with our current technologies, OTEC plants would have the capacity for disrupting and perhaps damaging the local environment.

There are three kinds of OTEC.

Closed Cycle OTEC uses a low-boiling point liquid such as, for example, propane to act as an intermediate fluid. The OTEC plant pumps the warm sea water into the reaction chamber and boils the intermediate fluid. This results in the intermediate fluid's vapor pushing the turbine of the engine, which thus generates electricity. The vapor is then cooled down by putting in cold sea water.

Open Cycle OTEC is not that different from closed cycling, except in the Open Cycle there is no intermediate fluid. The sea water itself is the driver of the turbine engine in this OTEC format. Warm sea water found on the surface of the ocean is turned into a low-pressure vapor under the constraint of a vacuum. The low-pressure vapor is released in a focused area and it has the power to drive the turbine. To cool down the vapor and create desalinated water for human consumption, the deeper ocean's cold waters are added to the vapor after it has generated sufficient electricity.

Hybrid Cycle OTEC is really just a theory for the time being. It seeks to describe the way that we could make maximum usage of the thermal energy of the ocean's waters. There are actually two sub-theories to the theory of Hybrid Cycling. The first involves using a closed cycling to generate electricity. This electricity is in turn used to create the vacuum environment needed for open cycling. The second component is the integration of two open cyclings such that twice the amount of desalinated, potable water is created than with just one open cycle.

In addition to being used for producing electricity, a closed cycle OTEC plant can be utilized for treating chemicals. OTEC plants, both open cycling and close cycling kinds, are also able to be utilized for pumping up cold deep sea water which can then be used for refrigeration and air conditioning.

Furthermore, during the moderation period when the sea water is surrounding the plant, the enclosed are can be used for mariculture and aquaculture projects such as fish farming. There is clearly quite an array of products and services that we could derive from this alternative energy source.

Many alternative energy sources explained. Ocean thermal, wind power, photovoltaic, and wind power too. More information:Alternative Energy


The effects of Solar Energy

With all the talk regarding solar energy for many years its time has finally come. The gradual invitable delpletion of natural resources has made alternative sources an absolute must. It's now a matter of time and we'll determine the eventual new leader. Much expensise and resources is now being spent to find the best natural resource such as solar energy.

While many potential sources are possible, research into all the avenues will eventually surface with the most viable option for our use. Presently we are using a number of various resources to create heat, electricity and desalination of seawater. Renewable energy has the sun as it's primary source which is not depletable. Approxiametly 30% of our enery resources come from the sun.

Most of our enconomic resources and time are spend developing our resources in the area's of wind power, water power, solar energy, biofuel, liquid biofuel, solid biomass and geothermal. Naturally these all have their pro's and cons. The biggest concern is pollution that comes directly the materials, industrial processes and construction equipment used to create them. The side effects can be pollution and waste that will impact our environment.

We also we need to consider other key issues of environmental impacts, aesthetics and habitat hazards, land usage, proximity to demand, availability, reliability, longevity along with energy input verses output. Other possibilities such as fossil fuels and nuclear power have their own positive and negatives and are not as viable. The resources for our use are many, the challenge is not if we have alternates to use but which ones and in what order.

The U.S. currently relies heavily on coal, oil, and natural gas for its energy. Fossil fuels are nonrenewable, that is, they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensive or too environmentally-damaging to retrieve. In contrast, renewable energy resources — such as wind and solar energy — are constantly replenished and will never run out.

Renewable energy is important because of the benefits it provides. It is believed that the major element in the learning and discovery process definitely will be and is solar energy.

Article Source: solar energy system


Homeowners – Beat the Winter Heating Blues with Solar Hot Water

There is no doubt that heating costs are a tremendous burden on the cost of living in today’s cash-strapped economy. As more and more Americans face an increasing credit crunch, the costs associated with our very survival are becoming more and more unbearable, and our incomes are not increasing at a rate fast enough to meet the demands on our money.
One of the biggest expenditures for Americans is the cost of heating water and their homes. Whether you rent a home or apartment, or own your own, home and water heating costs can account for 40% of our monthly and annual bills – sometimes even more in the winter months. This percentage could also grow even higher as oil prices continue to reach all-time highs. In fact, recently the price of crude oil hit $100 a barrel, driving the prices of fuel oil, natural gas and other heating fuels higher overnight.If your heating costs have you in an increasingly tight financial situation every month, you may want to consider one of the most cost-effective and affordable solutions to higher heating costs – Solar Water Heating. With Solar Hot Water Systems, you can cut your home and water heating bills by as much as 60 to 80% from the very first month after installation.A Solar Hot Water System is essentially a water heater that is designed to supplement your current water heater. The Solar Hot Water Collectors preheat your water through the power of the sun, which means that your current oil, propane or natural gas heater is used far less while still providing the same level comfort and safety. As you less and less of these traditional heating fuels, your monthly and annual bills will begin to go down – saving you hundreds of dollars a year, and thousands of dollars over the lifetime of the Solar Water Heater.The best part is, a Solar Hot Water System can be purchased and installed for under $4,000 in many cases (less or roughly the same as a new traditional water heater), and through your energy savings, will completely pay for itself within 1 to 3 years. After the Solar Hot Water System has completely paid for itself, it will continue save you hundreds of dollars a year – and over the lifetime of the system, a Solar Hot Water Heater can pay for itself several times over through energy savings over the 25 to 30 year lifetime of your Solar Collectors.For your home, Solar Hot Water can be used for a variety of applications – this versatility allows you to save money on almost every aspect of your heating bills. With a moderate sized Solar Water Heater, you can eliminate between 60 and 80% of your water heating bills for all of the following:· Washing Laundry· Washing Dishes· Showers and Personal Grooming· General Household CleaningAnd, the hot water can also be used as part of a Radiant Floor or baseboard heating system – which can be used to space heat your entire home free of cost.There are two main types of Solar Collectors used for Solar Water Heating:1. Flat Plate Solar Collectors – these collectors are extremely efficient in Southern, warm, sunny climates, and typically the least-expensive Solar Collector, making them very cost-effective and attractive to homeowners.2. Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors – these collectors are more efficient than Flat Plate Solar Collectors in Northern climates where temperatures are colder, winters are longer, and the days are shorter. While Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors are typically more expensive that Flat Plate Solar Collectors, their extended performance and increase efficiency in Northern Climates allow for faster paybacks and higher returns on investment.
If you are looking into purchasing a Solar Hot Water System to supplement your current water heater, You can find information, pricing and assistance from live Solar Hot Water Professionals at their website


Understanding How Wind Turbines Generate Power

Wind power is considered a renewable energy source because it will be with us as long as the sun beats down on the planet. Wind is a creation of heat produced by objects warming up under the relentless rays of the sun. Certain objects warm up faster than others. When this occurs, wind is created. As hot air rises off the hotter objects, cooler air rushes in to fill the gap. This rushing process is, of course, wind.
Wind power has long been of interest to scientists and energy companies. It is relatively cheap and can easily be tied into the current utility grids that feed power to nations. The question with wind power has always been how to generate enough energy from wind power to make it feasible. The entire discussion comes down to wind turbines.
Wind turbines are the devices that catch the wind and convert the inherent energy into electricity. The process works exactly like a hydropower dam. As the wind hits the turbines, the blades catch it and spin. The spinning motion then cranks a turbine, which kicks out electricity. The only difference between the two processes is we are talking about wind instead of water.
A single hydropower dam can produce a lot of electricity, but a single wind turbine cannot. Why? Well, the water rushing through a dam is condensed under the weight of itself. When it is released into the generator shutes, it also runs at a near vertical angle to maximize the speed of the water and generator cranking output. With wind, both of these factors are non-existent. One cannot really harness the wind to really power up a wind turbine. Instead, one has to install dozens and even hundreds of turbines to generate significant amounts of electricity. As you might imagine, this can cause problems.
The biggest problem with wind power is the number of turbines needed to produce enough electricity. While the turbines have grown more efficient and larger, one still needs significant numbers to produce enough tangible energy. The two primary solutions are old and new. The old solution is to find great swaths of vacant land for the turbines. With growing populations, this is still relatively difficult and expensive. The new solution is to build wind farms at sea. This makes much more sense since the wind on the ocean is nearly constantly there and the “land” isn’t costly.
At the end of the day, experts estimate wind power will account for upwards of 20 percent of all our energy needs in the next two decades. With further refinements and the use of offshore platforms, the number could be much higher.
Rick Chapo is with - information on wind power.
Article Source:


The Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternative Energy

It is essential that we find affordable and workable sources of alternative energy before the world completely consumes the already limited stock of fossil fuels. Many countries have started to introduce renewable energy schemes and more still have invested money into researching and even producing different sources of alternative energy. While it is essential that we become less reliant or not reliant at all on fossil fuels, many forms of alternative energy have their disadvantages as well as their obvious advantages. It has to be said though, that the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages in many cases.
Wind Energy.
Harnessing the power of the wind and using it to our ends is hardly a new idea. Windmills have been and still are used for many different purposes and have been for a great many years, but the improvement of turbines combined with the improved technology to turn the motion of turbine blades into an energy source has seen the use of turbines explode.
Wind power is very popular, but in order to provide a reasonable amount of power it may prove necessary to have large amounts of turbines. On windy days, and even not so windy days some turbines make a noise that many residents consider to be unbearable. Areas of open countryside are protected by conservation orders, which means they can’t be built there either and if there is no conservation order there are still protestors willing to do almost anything to stop the turbines being built. The only viable option left is to use offshore wind farms and these are being investigated, developed and planned all around the world but it takes too many turbines to create a reasonable amount of power and eventually they will have to be built inland; a matter that will be contested wherever the wind farms are proposed to be built.
Solar Energy.
Solar energy is probably the most common form of alternative powers for everyday people and you can see solar lights ad other solar accessories in many gardens. Governments are beginning to offer grants to assist in paying for photovoltaic roof tiles; these tiles are easily fitted onto your roof and collect the heat from the sun. This heat can either be used to heat water or can even be converted into electricity. The advantage for the consumer is that by including a grid tie system you can actually sell unused electricity back to the grid. Photovoltaic tiles take the place of ordinary roof tiles and can be perfectly blended to fit the look of the outside of your house. With solar energy you too can help the environment.
Ask most people which renewable energy source is the most widely used and they would say either wind or solar, but they’d be wrong or at least they certainly would in America. Since 2000 Biomass has been the most highly produced alternative energy in the United States. Using plant and animal material to create energy isn’t without its downfalls. It would almost certainly meet with competition from residents if biomass power stations were to be created in built up areas. The decomposing plants and animal waste creates an awful smell that is incredibly difficult to mask but it is very renewable (there’s always plants and animal waste).
Other renewable energy sources.
These are the main three renewable energy sources that the countries of the world are creating at the moment but there are others. Whether nuclear power is a viable alternative or not is a debate that will undoubtedly rage on forever, but it is a renewable energy and some countries already have extensive capabilities to produce it. Modern technology means that nuclear power stations are safer than they’ve ever been and damage to people, animals or plantation is highly unlikely. However, it takes a long time to develop nuclear power station and even plants that are already being built may take ten years to come to fruition.
Hydropower is used in some countries and uses the motion of waves to create energy. While it is a possibility, the amount of energy produced is minimal and the outlay to set these schemes up is quite large. Without further investigation and improvement in the techniques used it is unlikely that Hydropower will become a major player in the renewable energy world.

For more more information about alternative energy please visit
Article Source:


Hydro Energy

Water is a renewable energy resource, and one that offers the greatest variation in power production. We can harness the water energy through what is known as motive energy or through the differences it experiences in temperature.
Water is nearly one thousand times as dense as our air. What this tells us, then, is that a slow moving stream of water is more powerful, in terms of renewable energy than wind. A wave or swell of the sea can deliver many times that energy.
We have many forms of renewable water energy from which to choose.
There are many forms of water energy.
The first type of water energy, and the one we most commonly think of when we think of renewable water power, is hydroelectric. This is the power that commonly is created by large hydroelectric dams.
You can also have what are called micro hydroelectric systems. These are small power installations that produce as much as 100 kilowatts of power. The most common places to find these renewable water energy sources are in areas where water is abundant and the hydro system can be used as a remote area power supply RAPS. While there are many RAPS around the globe several are functioning in the Solomon Islands.
Wave power is another way of using water as a renewable energy source. The waves are used to create an up and down affect for pontoons that float in the water. This has just started to be used commercially as renewable energy.
Tides can produce renewable energy as well. As the ocean tides come in the water level is raised in the water basin. Then, at low tide the basin water gets discharged through the water turbine. Tidal stream power is different in that it captures the energy produced by the tidal flow. This usually is accomplished through the use of an underwater plant that looks like a small-scale wind turbine. While governments have set up demonstrations for this type of tidal power, any large scale commercialization of this renewable tidal energy would require extensive upfront capital. This has yet to be attempted.
Ocean thermal energy conversion OTEC is yet another form of water energy. OTEC uses the different in temperature between the oceans surface water and the water at deeper points. To do this it uses a cyclic heat engine. This form of renewable energy has had no large scale field test as yet.
Though not technically a form of generating renewable energy the cooling of the water in deep lakes is an efficient way to save energy during the hot summer months. Pipes are submerged and used as heat sinks. The bottom of these lakes typically stays at less than 40 degrees Fahrenheit.
Blue energy, which is really desalination in reverse, is a renewable energy resource still being researched. There is no data at this point to show whether it will work.

James Copper is a writer for where you can find a plumbing course
Article Source:


Comparing Hydrogen Powered Cars To Electric Cars

With gas prices being so high, alternative fuel vehicles have become a popular topic. Two of the types of vehicles that tend to get a lot of press are the hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles and electric powered vehicles. Both are lauded as the way of the future

But which of these two options are really has the better chance of being the car your children drive.

Let’s look at hydrogen fuel cells first. When burned in an engine, the only emissions giving off is water, so a hydrogen powered vehicle is a zero emission vehicle. Hydrogen is also a better fuel than gasoline, it actually has the highest energy content per unit of weight of any known fuel.

Hydrogen is also a very abundant element. While current methods for making hydrogen are done by using fossil fuels, such as natural gas, coal, and oil, American wouldn’t be dependent on foreign oil anymore. Also, hydrogen can be extracted from water, and we all know there’s a lot of water on this planet.

However, hydrogen is not without its share of drawbacks. Probably the biggest problem right now is that it would require an entire new infrastructure. While gas stations could be outfitted with hydrogen fueling stations that would take years. Also, the technology to store hydrogen efficiently is still not ready for prime time.

Then there’s the electric car. Electric cars can also be considered zero emission vehicles since they give off no emission when running. However, electric cars do require power from the electric grid, which does give off emissions. As the electric grid gets cleaner, though, so do electric cars, and electric powered cars are substantially less polluting than gasoline powered cars due to the fact that power plants are far cleaner and more efficient than an internal combustion engine in a vehicle.

The technology for mainstream electric cars is also not quite ready for all the major manufacturers to stop making gasoline powered cars, but it’s much closer than hydrogen currently is. The challenge with electric cars right now is the batteries. The batteries are both expensive and current models, like the Tesla Roadster, have a range of only 250 miles – great for commuting, but not so good for road trips. The other problem is the length of time these vehicles take to charge. It’s not simply a matter stopping at your local power station and plugging in for five minutes and leaving. A typical charging cycle for current prototypes is 4-5 hours – again, fine if you’re commuting, but impossible for a road trip. While technology is being developed to make charging your vehicle as quick as quick as filling up with gas, it has a ways to go before it’s ready, just like hydrogen fuel cells.

Fleets of electric cars will certainly be hitting the roads sooner hydrogen fuel cell cars, but which one ultimately ends up being the vehicle of choice for American drivers remains to be seen as both have plenty of challenges to overcome before people will readily give up their cheap gas powered cars in favor of these alternatives.

About The Author

Gary Ruplinger provides free gas saving advice at and offers a free report called 61 ways to save money on gas on his site. Also, for more info like this, check out the blog at


Energy Department Kicks in $119 Million for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Research

President Bush has indicated it is imperative to kick America’s oil habit. In conjunction with this goal, the Department of Energy has just announced a $119 million dollar research initiative.

Money for Research and Development

Obviously, automobiles are the basis of America’s oil addiction. Everyone seems to have at least one car if not more. To attack this problem, the current administration is putting a lot of emphasis on hydrogen fuel cell research for vehicles.

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are extremely environmentally friendly. They work by converting hydrogen and oxygen into electricity through a chemical process. This process is particularly attractive because it produces no pollutants, is nearly twice as efficient as combustible gas engines and relies on extremely plentiful resources that are not located in foreign lands. There are, however, a few drawbacks to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

Hydrogen powered cars are much more expensive than traditional gas powered vehicles. The technology is simply not advanced enough to make production cost effective. The vehicles themselves are also not particularly efficient at this point in time from both a performance and range perspective. The answer to these problems, of course, is research and development.

To spur research on hydrogen fuel cell cars, the Department of Energy has created a Research Roadmap that is designed to identify and set goals for overcoming technical and manufacturing problems related to this new energy platform. At the Washington Auto Show, the agency also indicated it was kicking in $119 million dollars in grants to get the ball rolling.

The Department of Energy is focusing on a few key issues for research. They include improving fuel cell membranes, water movement within the fuel cell, advancing the chemical conversion process and addressing the impact of impurities in the fuel cells on performance and length of service of the automobiles. Each of these subjects has proved to be a barrier to mass production of hydrogen fuel cars.

The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy is to have hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in mass production by 2020. To this end, the $119 million dollar kick start represents a small part of the over 1 billion dollars the agency will devote to research and development on fuel cell automobiles. While 2020 may seem far into the future, at least we are taking steps to move beyond our reliance on foreign energy sources.

About the AuthorRick Chapo is with - makers of writing journals for travel and outdoor activities. Writing journals make great Christmas gifts for her.


The Perks of Global Warming

Marya Mannes once wrote, “The earth we abuse and the living things we kill will, in the end, take their revenge; for in exploiting their presence we are diminishing our future.” Obviously Ms. Mannes preferred the status quo - health, sanity, logic, blah, blah, blah. Why?

Green House Roulette is so much more intriguing.In the country, weather affects everything. For five years Western South Dakota has been gripped by drought. Water and hay are vanishing. Farms and ranches are blowing away. While the government bails out victims from hurricanes and says, ‘South Dawho?’ our cattle are pissing dust mites.

Fortunately, things are looking up. There is some good news! Those pesky glaciers are finally melting off! Last year an eight-nation report estimated an area of Arctic icepack the size of Texas and Kansas is gone. For those who are geographically impaired, that is an area bigger than a breadbox.At first, news of devastating global climate change might seem a bit of a bummer. Then I read an LA Times article and had a change of heart. The article began with the usual gloom. Greenland’s ice cap is melting.

Our coasts will flood from rising seawater. Inuit hunters are falling through thinning ice. Melting glaciers change ocean temperature and salinity contorting the jet stream, which results in altered weather patterns worldwide. Multitudes of species are dying off . . . It was disheartening.Then I got to the article’s final paragraph. Bam! My faith was restored. Here the Times pointed out the perks of global warming. Seriously, the article actually ended saying: “The report is not all gloomy. A warmer Arctic could increase the number of some species, such as Arctic char, a fish. It could extend the growing season for wheat in Canada and open up now-treacherous sea routes, such as the Northwest Passage and the Northern Sea Route, which parallels Russia, for shipping and resource exploration.” Three cheers for the LA Times! It’s true! All is not gloomy. With that glorious bit of sunshine pumped straight up my ski bibs, I was able to see things in a whole new light. I started thinking of other advantages to global warming. Soon you will agree that people from all walks of life will benefit.

For starters, Inuit Hunters will benefit! Once Inuit have nothing left to hunt there will be no need for them to risk falling through thin ice. Plus, by needing food they will be ripe for a floating (pontoons, not ice) Arctic Super Wal-Mart. “Go get ‘em, Sam.”Boat owners will benefit! Not only will there be smooth sailing through the formerly bothersome ice of the Northwest Passage, but each summer, cruise ships will be able to run tourists straight up Bourbon Street in New Orleans.Scuba Divers will benefit! There will be no more burning coral cuts. In fact there will be no more coral. Once all the reefs are gone, divers can pack away first aid kits and dive straight in. A little silt never cut anyone. Canadian Wheat Farmers will benefit! You see, there is a 10% decrease in yield of corn from Midwest crops for every degree of global warming. No worries though, now wheat can take the place of corn. Think about all those scrumptious Wheat Dogs at the ball game. How about popped wheat with butter at the movies or steaming wheat on the cob? All scream ‘yummy’ to me.While it is a bit ironic that ethanol is made from the corn crops global warming devastates, I am sure some aspiring chemist will rise to the challenge of developing ‘Wheatanol.’ Imagine Canuck Wheat Farmers having more influence than the Saudi Royal Family. Dune-Buggy enthusiasts will benefit! The Dakotas will soon reopen for your 4-wheelin’ pleasure. Join the Mount Rushmore Nose Climb on July 4th! It will be a bugger of a challenge!Eco-Tourism Operators will benefit! Companies could offer new “Emaciation Tour Packages.” Tourists get closer photos of polar bears and whales when they are too lethargic from starvation to meander away. In addition, long treks to Inuit villages can be avoided once they are forced to beg on the streets of Nome (or cashiering at Wal-Mart).

Finally, the next generation of Bush family politicians will benefit! Once again they can avoid addressing campaign issues, this time by distracting dehydrated voters with witty campaign phrases like; “No Kyoto Pact-No Ice Pack,” or “Dead Seals Never Flip-Flop,” even promising “No Char Left Behind.” Not to mention offering new, SPF 80 tax credits.Well, by golly, I do feel better! Shall we spin the Rolette wheel some more?

About the AuthorZoologist turned satirist Nola L. Kelsey is the author of the scathingly wicked satire Bitch Unleashed: The Harsh Realities of Goin’ Country and coauthor of the twisted political satire Keeping the Masses Down. Her newsletter, Nomadic Muse, tracks Kelsey’s escape from South Dakota normality to her life as a shoestring backpacker in SE Asia. More excerpts from Bitch Unleashed and subscriptions to Nomadic Muse are available at


Biofuels- Eco-Friendly Alternative To Fossil Fuels

Biofuel sector is offering many advantages on a platter. It is generating a pool of job opportunities in farming and soon, this is going to be the domain of energy crops (those crops that are used to produce biofuel). Along with this, the production, marketing and distribution of biofuel also hold immense possibilities.Biodiesel is made from absolutely clean, natural, & completely biodegradable sources, like soybeans and other similar recycled vegetable oils. Making use of biodiesel-empowered vehicles has not only minimized the exhaust emissions but also improved the performance of engines in US. It makes US less dependent on fossil fuels.Food industries, agri-businesses and biofuels companies are increasingly evaluating opportunities to increase their operating margins. Whilst new products as well as facilities may create significant returns on investments but making the correct strategic decision frequently needs an understanding of difficult factors that, at times, can be outside the corporate expertise.When comparing fossil fuels and biodiesel, fossil fuels emit considerably less level of key pollutants. Living days of CO2 emissions are roughly 1/5th as compared to the fossil fuel. The biofuels need no costly engine modifications; they are energy positive and securely biodegradable. They can play a big part in refreshing beleaguered agricultural industry.A well-established fuel in the US fuel market today is Bioethanol. Here it is used as a petrol extender. It is rated as an alternative to various lead additives, so as to perk up the octane level of petrol. For further information about Biofuels market development and it growth in US, read the report "New Opportunities in US Biofuel Market (2006)" published by RNCOS at: is an industry leader in the field of online business research. We specialize in industry research on various business verticals. To read our other reports, visit us at: or email us at get the latest news on Biofuel Market & Its Worldwide Development, please visit our newly launched Blog section at
About the author:We provide global business information for industry research, business consulting, & bring reputed companies and firms to us for business enhancement solutions


How To Make Biodiesel: The Three choices of using biofuel

Biodiesel becomes more and more popular every year. It's popularity probably derives from the fact that biodiesel is so cheap and relatively easy to be made. You can make it in your own backyard or kitchen. It is far better than the original petro-diesel, it's cleaner and better for the environment and your health. Let's talk about the three options you have when running a diesel engine on biofuel.All three options can be used with vegetable oils, animal fat or both (it doesn't matter if you use fresh or used oils):- You can use the oil as it is- You can mix the oil with another chemical supplement like kerosene, or gasoline or petroleum etc.- You can convert the oil to biodieselUsing the oil as it is can be clean and effective. Not to mention cheap also. But you have to make modifications to the diesel engine so that it is optimized for vegetable oil. You can find pre-modified diesel engines where you can use petro diesel, biodiesel and pure vegetable oil in any combination. There are engines with separate fuel tanks and a switch, you fill one tank with vegetable oil and the other tank with original petroleum diesel. Then you just turn on the engine using the tank with the original petroleum diesel and after a while you switch to the tank with the vegetable oil.Mixing the oil with other supplements is your second option. Because vegetable oil is thick you mix it with a different type of fuel to make it thinner so that it flows easily into the combustion chamber of your diesel engine. Remember that using petroleum or kerosene to mix the vegetable oil, is not a clean option though. You can make various mixes (for example 20% vegetable oil and 80% of another diesel fuel). Some claim that if you use such a mix you have to preheat the engine, others just start the engine and go without preheating.Your final option (and by far the best, in my opinion) is to convert the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Because biodiesel works in any diesel engine without the need to make any conversion or modifications to the fuel system or the engine itself. Just fill and go. Biodiesel is a much safer, clean, ready to use fuel that's well tested. This option unlike the other two is backed by thousands of short-term and long-term research and tests by scientists around the world.

About the author:It's a shame you buy so much expensive energy from you local electric company or the gigantic oil companies when you can learn how to make your own biodiesel easily and effectively in your own backyard. Take a look at this free biodiesel ebook on how to make biodiesel. The information on the book is straight from the university of Idaho.


Learn How To Make Solar Power Work for You

There has never been a better time than now to take advantage of the numerous benefits of solar power. Many states have made solar power affordable, cost effective, providing a 10% return on investment and in many cases solar power will pay for itself almost instantly. The utilization of solar power has never offered more benefits than now. Not only can the installation of solar power pay for itself almost instantly, but given the current world political climate and the threat of terrorist actions to disrupt cheap oil supplies make it very prudent. Many states offer a 10% return on investments to encourage its use. The simple fact is that installing a solar electric system in your home is now cost effective for the first time. And you’ll sleep better at night knowing that you have now become part of the energy solution as world oil supplies continue to dwindle. In the state of California the cost of solar power in 1978 was well over $300 per watt. Today, with incentives offered by the state, that price has now dropped to less than $6 per watt- a staggering 98% reduction in cost of solar energy. In addition to the reduction in cost of installing a solar power system, your home’s value increases $20 for every $1 reduction in annual utility bills- this according to the National Appraisal Institute. Therefore, installing a solar power system in your home costing $16,000 would increase you home’s value by $17,520. That’s a net gain of $1520 the day you install the system. On April 25, 1950 Bell Laboratories introduced the first silicon solar cell. Bell called its invention “The first successful device (solar cell) to convert useful amounts of the sun’s energy directly into electricity.” The NY Times heralded it as “The beginning of a New Era, leading eventually to the realization of one of mankind’s most cherished dreams-The harnessing of the almost limitless energy of the sun for uses of civilization.” 99% of the world’s energy comes from sunlight or solar energy. Everyday enough free sunlight energy falls on the Earth to supply our energy needs for 4-5 years at our present rate of consumption. At the equator, the Sun provides 1000 Watts per square meter on the Earth’s surface. The amount of solar energy we take today in no way diminishes the amount we can take tomorrow or any time in the future.

About the author:Owning a solar home (visit and being self sufficient can give you a great feeling of accomplishment knowing that you are contributing to a Greener Planet. Learn about the numerous benefits of utilizing clean, renewable Solar Energy at Not only can the installation of solar power pay for itself almost instantly, but you will sleep better at night knowing that you are part of the solution - not part of the problem.


green energy News

Cool Web Site Listings